The Grenada Revolution Online

Bishop Speech - New Year's Address,
1 January 1983

Sisters and brothers,

Patriots of Free Grenada


Comrades all,

On behalf of our party and government I extend to you all warm, fraternal greetings on the first day of 1983 and wish you peace, good health and success for the new year.

At the beginning of every year it is traditional to throw our vision ahead to the tasks and challenges in the upcoming 12 months, to commit ourselves to the fulfillment of these tasks, and to scientifically plan the correct strategy for accomplishing our objectives.

New Year resolutions and re commitments, projected visions and dedications are meaningless if they are not informed and guided by the lessons drawn from the collective experiences of the past year.

Therefore, before we open the door to step boldly and forthrightly into 1983 it is necessary, to pause and review the road we have travelled, take stock of our successes and setbacks and honestly evaluate, our shortcomings and failures.

Comrades, 1982 was a year when the present economic crisis in world capitalism which began in 1979 grew worse and this meant that the economies of our region were severely affected.

According to official United States Labour Department figures, over 12 million working people in the largest and richest capitalist country in the world are today unemployed and in 1983 this figure is expected to increase by a million more.

The same is true for the countries of Western Europe. Over 2½ million workers are unemployed in West Germany, over 3¼ million in the United Kingdom and millions more in France, Italy, Spain, Belgium and others.

In 1982, over 20,000 US businesses declared bankruptcy, the country’s business sector as a whole lost around 10 billion US dollars and the US economy back-backed, yes grew backwards, by 1.5%.

Economic growth last year in other developed capitalist countries was only slightly better with the U.K. 4%, Italy 1.5% and West Germany registering 1%.

These are indeed mind-blowing statistics, comrades.

In the Caribbean region, unemployment got worse as thousands of workers were laid off, as a result of reduced economic activity in commerce and industry, in particular in the areas of Bauxite, tourism, sugar and the public sector, or from outright bankruptcies in the private sector.

There was little or no growth in the national economies of the Caribbean.

In fact, one neighbouring country which has been frequently pushed by imperialism as a “model” for the region grew backwards by nearly 10% in the past 24 months.

Sisters and brothers, comrades, in January of last year when our People’s Revolutionary Government declared 1982 as the “Year of Economic Construction” we clearly foresaw the worsening of this capitalist crisis during the year and the negative effects it would have on our fragile, open and dependent economy.

We were convinced then, and remain convinced today, that the very future of our Revolution hinged on our people’s struggle to construct a viable economy out of the ruins and devastation inherited from colonialism, Gairyism and neo-colonialism.

Economic construction laying the basis for genuine economic independence and liberation from imperialism was to be the key focus and major priority for 1982.

At that time we asked ourselves what would the year of economic construction mean to our working people? What challenges will it put to them and what benefits will it bring to them?

We said then and will continue to say in 1983 that real progress for our country will only be achieved through the hard work of our people and that those who labour to construct must share in the fruits of their labour.

We stressed then and will continue to stress in 1983 that our working class and our working people must be more involved in the planning and decisions affecting their work, as well as the work itself.

The new revolutionary people’s democracy must extend from the community to the workplace.

More discussions, more seminars, more structures for emulation, more production committees, must be organized and made to function in the factories, farms and offices of our nation.

We said at the beginning of 1982 and will repeat throughout the new year that our working people must be brought into the process of national economic planning.

This heightened democratic activity at the workplace will not only achieve greater production and output, sharpen efficiency and eliminate waste and corruption but also improve the social wage and thus widen the range and scope of material benefits coming to our working people.

And today we are very happy to note the impressive strides which we made in 1982 through the establishment of over 63 emulation committees.

Now, we must ensure that this critical task is stepped up and intensified even further in 1983 at all work places and in all areas of activity.

Sisters and brothers, friends, comrades, in our New Year’s address one year ago, we said that agriculture is the motor of our economy, the main supplier of food for our people, a major earner of foreign exchange, a weapon against unemployment and a means for increasing our self-reliance based on the full development of our main natural resource – the land.

All of this remains true as we step into 1983.

On that occasion we also said that between recurrent and capital expenditure the Revolution one year ago was spending 54 times more money than the dictator every spent on agriculture.

And it is worth saying that, this remarkable effort has not been overlooked by the World Bank for in its August 1982 report on the Grenada economy it says and I quote:

In agriculture, the government has moved on several fronts to correct the malaise that afflicted the sector . . . the government has also enhanced and upgraded extension services and technical assistance to individual farmer and has been providing larger flows of financial assistance for banana and cocoa rehabilitation.

Comrades, what the World Bank report has said is 100% accurate.

However, our economic performance for 1982 in the agricultural sector, though creditable, was not as satisfactory as we would have liked it to be.

We continued to be plagued by falling export revenues for our cocoa and nutmegs resulting from the devastating drop in world market prices for these commodities.

We continued to wrestle with a disastrous inheritance on our state farms and with a traditional attitude of resistance by some of our farmers to the introduction of upgraded technology and new, scientific techniques of agricultural production.

Yet in 1982 we were able to rebuild our Mirabeau Farm School and open additional agricultural training schools in Bocage, St. Mark’s; La Sagesse, St. David’s; Boulogne, St. Andrew’s and 6 Roads, Carriacou.

We established a soil and water resource unit with assistance from the FAO thus becoming one of the first countries in the Caribbean to computerize its data on soil and water resources.

With assistance from the Canadian Government we began the massive cocoa rehabilitation project which will spread over 8 years and bring some 10,000 acres under cocoa cultivation.

Production of food crops was expanded last year resulting in a 58% rise in sales of such crops by the Grenada Farms Corporation.

The Marketing and National Importing Board sold over one million pounds of farmers’ food crops in 1982 – almost double the 1981 figure of just over 600,000 lbs.

In the area of agricultural infrastructure 39 miles of new farm roads and 7½ miles of feeder roads were constructed.

This programme will continue and expand in 1983 with the introduction of tractors and other related technology which will carry enormous significance for speeding up agricultural development.

In full recognition of the tractor’s importance, the Ministry of Agriculture introduced some 35 tractors into agricultural production in 1982 and it is expected that this year a couple dozen more will be added to a National Machinery Pool, to which our farmers will have access.

In agriculture, the new year presents us with a number of challenges, locally and internationally.

As mentioned earlier there are no visible prospects for an improvement in the world economic situation in 1983 and this will mean continuing pressures from falling world market prices not only for Grenada but for all the poor, underdeveloped economies of the world.

During 1981 the average world market price for nutmegs stood at$2.48 per pound but by 1982 it had dropped to $1.95 and over the last few weeks we have had to sell for as low as $1.20 at times.

For cocoa, in 1979 the world market price was $1.54 per pound but by 1982 it had plunged to 81 cents per pound and all indications show that this downward spiral will not change in the 12 month that lie ahead.

So what should our responses be to this escalating crisis, this frightening picture of doom and gloom?

Internationally, it underscores the importance along with other nations to continue the struggle for a New International Economic Order.

Locally, it means expanding our crop diversification programme, seeking new, stable markets with guaranteed prices, and stepping up our agro-processing operation to provide new local markets for our farmers and more employment and foreign exchange for our country.

Since it began operations, increases in output at our Agro-Industrial plant have been fairly impressive, jumping from $300,000 worth of products in 1981 to $800,000 in 1982 and plans for 1984 call for a tripling of last year’s levels.

But comrades, undoubtedly our major task in agriculture for 1983 is to find new ways of producing more for less and of intensifying the drive towards modernization.

Now is the time to abandon the old ways of production that are no longer feasible.

Now is the time to reorganize our patterns of production, to experiment with new techniques such as contouring and terracing, to raise the productivity yields in all our crops, to mechanise and to apply science and technology to the land.

Now is the time, for increased co-operation among our farmers, for the sharing of machinery, for joint purchase of fertilizer, for joint transportation of products to the marketing board.

Now is the time to ensure that every square inch of idle land in the country is put into production so that we may soon become a nation that feeds itself.

In 1979, the importation of food was 40% of our total imports.

Today, it is down to 28%, a remarkable advance in the right direction, but we must continue to develop this pattern so that we can rapidly decrease the $3 million worth of food that we’re still importing each month.

Sisters and brothers, comrades. We have said on countless occasions that no economy as poor and backward as our can ever hope for rapid take off until and unless the necessary physical infrastructure is built or improved.

In 1982, the Year of Economic Construction, the Revolution made a number of bold and decisive steps in this direction.

During the year work on our new international airport, our most important infrastructural project, continued apace, with paving of the first 5000 ft. completed, the paving of what was once Hardy Bay started, and work on the terminal building began.

Also at the airport site, work began on a huge fuel storage tank farm which will have a capacity of some 1½ million gallons or 4 times the total capacity of our present storage facilities.

Although tampered by a number of objective difficulties, particularly in the area of adequate asphalt supplies, our $10 million Eastern Main Road project proceeded in 1982 and so too did our island-wide programme of road repair and reconstruction.

Important streets in the capital of St. George’s like Lucas, Young, Church, Tyrrel and Scott streets were partially or completely resurfaced.

We have also seen significant improvements in the area of Health care with the start of the primary health care programme and the recently established agricultural Workers Health Scheme.

The improvement in housing is no less dramatic, with over 11,000 of our people receiving housing repair assistance, and those of you who can, should take a look at the new housing scheme, which started construction only a few weeks ago in the Grand Anse Valley.

Furthermore with the coming on stream of the Sandino Plant we will have the capacity to build some 500 houses or their equivalent every year, as a result of yet another profound act of friendship on the part of the Government and people of Cuba.

More of our people received pipe-borne water last year as a result of new or expanded reservoirs being opened up while almost the entire pipe system in St. George’s was replaced and modernized.

In fact, instead of the 4 million gallons of water a day which was being produced at the time of the Revolution, today we are producing 6.4 million gallons, and the Mama Cannes project which started in July will soon bring another 400,000 gallons a day on stream.

The frequent and prolonger electricity black-outs of 1981 were lessened in 1982 as repairs were effectd on the main electricity generator machines at the Queens Park Plant.

In addition, more villages in Carriacou and all of Petit Martinique received electricity for the very first time last year and with our recent purchase of new generators our people can look forward to a more than doubling of our present electricity output in the not too distant future.

Expansion of the telephone building in St. George’s was completed in 1982 while the first shipment of line and equipment for our new telephone system recently arrived from the German Democratic Republic.

Again, this will have the effect of more than doubling our existing number of telephone lines and give us for the first time in our history direct dialing to our sister island of Carriacou.

In the area of tourism, one of the four pillars of our national economy, we anticipate that the sizable sum of $400 million will be spent in this sector over the next three years.

This money is earmarked for completion of the airport, construction of new hotels, increased promotion and advertising and the operation of new tourism offices in North America and Europe.

And this huge investment will of course, provide tremendous new opportunities for private sector investment and for the creation of new jobs and the further expansion of our economy.

In the area of fisheries, another pillar of our economy, 1982 saw the launching of a $7.1 million development Programme to upgrade small scale fishing in the country.

This project will provide better market centres with reliable cold storage and ice-making facilities, make available gear and equipment for fisherman at reasonable prices, and provide loans on good terms for fishermen to buy engines and boats.

Sisters and brothers, comrades, on March 9, 1982 an unprecedented event in the English-speaking Caribbean took place in St. George’s, an event which marked an extraordinary step forward for our people and which has been characterised as the most dramatic, single demonstration of the concrete exercise by a whole people of the revolutionary democratic principle of participation.

I am referring, of course, to the presentation to the nation and the world that day of a genuine people’s budget which was formulated out of a process begun on a mass scale when 1000 delegates from all our mass organisation came together at the Dome on January 29th [1982] for an historic conference on the economy.

This was swiftly followed up by a series of 25 zonal and Workers Parish Councils and dozens of other meetings in every corner of our country including meetings with the private sector.

Then on March 1st we held another conference on the economy at the Dome, bringing together all those who had not yet aired their views or suggestions, all those who were not yet members of our mass organisations including our senior citizens, the self-employed and those working for small enterprises.

This was followed by a three-day session, also at the Dome with the representatives and managers of the state enterprises.

What was being attempted in this democratic exercise, comrades, was a pooling of the ideas and opinions of literally every section and stratum of our people.

Add what we discovered was a virtual treasure-chest of valuable and creative ideas coming out of the concrete experiences and social practise of our people and being offered by them in a loud, clear, unequivocal and unselfish manner, all the spirit of collective responsibility towards planning and charting the economic construction effort of the nation.

Throughout the year this spirit prevailed as the 5-component parts of our revolutionary, people democracy – responsibility, accountability, participation, material benefits and electability – became more entrenched in our society.

In 1982 our working class through their trade unions elected their leaders, and our NWO sisters elected their national executive.

People’s democracy was evident recently when the general membership of the Technical and Allied Workers Union and the Agricultural and General Workers Union made fundamental amendments to their constitutions and when the members of the National Women’s Organisation participated over a period of months in a structured manner in drafting, criticizing and redrafting the highly significant workplan that will guide their work over the next three years.

Furthermore, more new people’s revolutionary laws were passed last year in the ongoing process of enshrining and embedding our people’s democratic rights into the laws of the land.

The Rent Law, the increased Workmen’s Compensation Law and the Third Party Insurance (Amendment) Law, all of which were announced at Queen’s Park on May Day 1982, at the largest gathering of our working class ever assembled in Grenada for May Day, are three particularly significant pieces of legislation that will advance the human rights of our working people.

Comrades, 1982 was a year when our Revolution reached out to the peoples of the world more than ever before, giving them our friendship and solidarity and receiving from them warm feelings of sympathy, friendship and goodwill.

The many visits made by the leaders of the Revolution to such countries like Bulgaria, Cubs, France, the German Democratic Republic, Libya, the Soviet Union, Venezuela, to name a few, helped to strengthen our relations of cooperation and in all cases resulted in tangible, material benefits for our people.

Grenada’s successes at the OECS and CARICOM heads of state meetings in St. Lucia and Jamaica were victories not only for us but for all the people of the Caribbean.

There is no doubt that the Revolution earned respect, prestige and dignity at those meetings.

Once again, we showed imperialism, their agents and lackeys, that the Revolution is firm and clear and must be respected.

Likewise, the extraordinary successes of our National Performing Company during tours to UK and North America last year reflected not only the cultural progress made by our country since the Revolution but was itself a celebration of the best aspect of indigenous Caribbean culture.

We recall with pride and satisfaction the many important conferences held in our country last year and the memorable visits of outstanding world figures, in particular the exciting visit of Cde. Samora Machel, President of Revolutionary Mozambique, a country with which we have firm and unshakeable links.

Comrades, the international prestige and creditability of a nation is measurable not only by its popular and positive image among the nations and peoples of the world, not only by the respect, admiration and affection shown to is leaders when they travel abroad, but also by its ability to attract to its shores peoples from far and wide who come to see for themselves the reality of our national life.

The large number of visitors who come to our shores in 1982 to participants in conferences and rallies, and in our annual Carriacou Regatta and Grenada Carnival in August is testimony of this growing prestige of the Revolution.

At the same time, the tremendous success of our Caribbean Calypso Festival, which we intend to make an annual event, provided further proof of our sincere commitment to regional integration.

We are also happy that so many visitors came to the Caribbean Netball Tournament when the remarkable performance of our young sisters made us extremely proud, and reaffirmed once again the correctness of our sports for all concept.

Certainly, many who travelled these long distances to come to our country as a result of the critical work internationally of the Friendship Societies and Solidarity Committees, come to witness for themselves the heartening achievements made over the last three and a half years or to simply relax and enjoy the hospitality of our free people.

And all of this attests not only to the ever-growing prestige of our Revolution but also the glorious transition we have made in less than 4 years from being the laughing stock of the world, to becoming a country though still poor, yet full of courage, creativity, dignity and tangible achievements.

Comrades, even our right-wing detractors are today being forced to acknowledge the progress we have made.

For them it is indeed difficult to dispute a World Bank report which states that our poor, struggling country with all its natural economic limitations and in spite of the dismal legacy of economic backwardness, corruption and mismanagement from the Gairy dictatorship, and the well known list of Imperialist attempts at economic sabotage, achieved 9% cumulative growth in our economy in the first three years of the Revolution.

Furthermore, what can they say about the reduction of our unemployment from 49% in 1979 to 14.2% today.

If we stay firmly on the course we have charted then this modest growth will continue in the years to come.

And as more economic projects come on stream, particularly in construction and agriculture, many more jobs will be created and in a few years unemployment will be wiped out in Grenada.

But joyful as that prediction may appear to be on the surface there is an underlying problem that we must recognise and address squarely as we being the new year.

Yes, there will be many new jobs and yes there will be sisters and brothers now unemployed who must take those jobs.

But comrades, what is critically necessary is that they must be ready to take up those jobs.

They must be prepared and trained and educated for those jobs.

We have to recognise that we cannot build a national economy; we cannot reclaim our economy from the grips of imperialism without a well trained and highly skilled work force.

This low training of our people is a major weakness and if we do not move fact to correct it, the progress of the Revolution will be held back.

This is yet another fundamental challenge that faces our Revolution and our people. But it is by no means insurmountable.

We can and we will tackle it successfully but the approach to this challenge must be in keeping with the tradition that we’ve established since the Revolution.

This approach has been one that says: once a major problem has been identified and a top priority attached to it then we should proceed in a given period of time to channel our resources and concentrate our energies and efforts to the solution of that problem.

Following this approach, since the early days of the Revolution we have designated each year a special focus.

1979 was the “Year of Liberation”, 1980 the “Year of Education and Production”, 1981 the “Year of Agriculture and Agro-Industries”, 1982 the “Year of Economic Construction” and today I am happy to tell you that our People’s Revolutionary Government has declared 1983 as the “Year of Political and Academic Education”.

As in the past, this focus for 1983 was not chosen arbitrarily or as the result of a dream.

It is not just a pretty idea that one day last week jumped out of the head of a member of the top leadership.

It is a scientific and collective conclusion reached after many painstaking hours of analysis and evaluation.

It is true that the political consciousness, awareness and understanding of the Grenadian people has advanced swiftly since the Revolution.

It is also true that relative to other countries in the region our people have a fairly high degree of political education.

But, comrades, political education like all forms of education is not static.

It does not stop after it reaches a certain level.

On the contrary, it is dynamic, always moving always growing and developing.

The complex political and economic situation in the world today demands from all our people greater clarity of understanding, sharper powers of analysis and broader perspectives.

Our people must develop in the new year a mental grasp on the true nature of the international capitalist crisis which is holding back the progress of our Revolution and the development of all poor countries in the world.

They must know the causes and origins of this crisis.

They must see clearly the link between politics and economics, between imperialist exploitation and persistent poverty, between the mad buildup of arms by imperialism and the economic crisis.

With their political consciousness raised and broadened our people will better understand the necessity to join and to strengthen those mass organisation and trade unions that already exist.

Political education, comrades, will prepare our working people for the sacrifices and hard work required to construct a viable economy and to develop a capacity for adequately defending the Revolution.

Political education will help to identify from the ranks of our working people the future leaders of the Revolution, and it will help to prepare the working class to assume its historic role of transforming Grenada from backwardness and dependency to genuine economic independence.

So one of the major tasks that confront us all in 1983 will be to organise more worker education sessions at the workplaces, and more for a for political discussions in the factories, fields, communities and schools across the nation.

Comrades, the educational system we inherited from colonialism and Gairyism was geared to exporting our people, not orienting them to tackle to social and economic developmental tasks facing the country.

Education and production together with economic construction were never seen to be closely interrelated.

The onus is now on us as a free people to redirect this misguided emphasis.

The main academic or educational task for 1983, therefore, must be to push ahead vigorously with the CPE adult education programme, to bring thousands more of our working people into this programme because if its fundamental relevance to the social, political and economic development of the masses.

C.P.E. certificates will therefore become more of a critical asset in the new job opportunities that will be created and an equally important asset in the areas of training and promotion.

A CPE Adult Education Certificate will become a recognised certificate in the society.

Those who get it will be able to use it as the qualification for certain jobs and for promotion in existing jobs.

Thus, it must be emphasised that Adult Education through the CPE will be important not only for those seeking jobs, but also for those who already have jobs, and also for the elderly, for the poorest of our people and indeed for all our people.

The consolidation and further development of the National In-Service Teacher Education and Community School Day Programme, and the further laying the basis for the establishment of universal secondary education and the creation of more developed technical training programmes are all critical priorities for 1983.

And all of this of course means that the students of our country must take an even more serious and disciplined approach to their studies in order to make the fullest use of these new opportunities.

The more than 23,000 people before the Revolution who were out of work has now been reduced to 5,600 and of this figure, 4,000 are women, the vast majority of whom do not have primary school leaving certificates or special skills or training for most jobs.

But while on the one hand that is the reality facing us, on the other hand, the needs of the economy are very different.

We estimate, for example, that in agriculture 2,500 jobs are likely to be created over the next three years – jobs for tractor drivers, soil scientists, farm managers, agricultural economists, economists, co-operative farmers, extension officers and so on; jobs that demand skills for the modernized agriculture that we are in the process of building.

And it is the same in construction.

The 2,000 new jobs we expect to create in construction over the next three years will require plumbers, electricians, masons, carpenters, painters, architects, mechanics, surveyors, soil testers, engineers, and so on.

Yet, any casual examination of the unemployed, will show that most of them do not have the necessary skills or training to take up these jobs.

It is not far different in tourism where at least another 500 jobs should be created in the next three years, particularly when the new international airport and new hotels and restaurants come on stream.

But again these new jobs will all require a certain measure of skill.

With our industrial expansion too, once more we will be looking for people who can not only read and write but who also have the ability to use modern equipment and technology.

In all areas, therefore, it is quite clear that the answer is no longer to simply say that if we find jobs for the unemployed then the problem is over.

Instead, the question that we will increasingly have to answer is – do we have the necessary skills to take up the actual jobs that are available?

This being so, comrades, if we are to scientifically prepare for the future, our main priority must be to provide the appropriate training and education for those still unemployed, while at the same time, continuing to provide more and more training opportunities for those workers who presently have jobs.

We have absolutely no doubt at all, that over the next three year or so, unemployment can be completely wiped out in our country, but it is equally clear that this can only be done in a fully productive way through increasing educational and training opportunities and through stepping up our unity, discipline and hard work as Party, Government and People.

What are the main tasks for this “Year of Political and Academic Education”?

The main tasks are the following:-

1. Worker education in all workplaces – state and private.

2. CPE in all villages.

3. CPE also for the workers.

4. Total trade union involvement in CPE and worker education.

5. More work study programs for our students.

6. More seminars and more training programmes by the mass organisations.

7. More technical seminars for different categories of workers in order to improve their skills.

Our overall objective in 1983 the “Year of Political and Academic Education” is to make our country and Revolution a big popular school.

Let study and learning develop into permanent habits of a conscious people.

Let us put into full practise that great principle of the Revolution that the education never stops – that it is the fundamental right of all of our people to have more training, to raise ever higher our level of education so as to know and understand ourselves as a people – who we are, where we have come from, where we are going.

Our Party and government have met this priority because we firmly believe that it is on the realisation of this basic task that our future will be assured.

Without education, no genuine peoples democracy can be built since real democracy always assumes the informed, conscious and educated participation of the people

Without education, there can be no real worker participation, no substantial increase in production and productivity, no individual and collective growth, no true dignity, no genuine independence.

As a nation we will in 1983 be striving collectively and individually to learn more about ourselves and our condition so that together we can forge ahead to a confident future.

And as we pursue this noble objective with revolutionary zeal and determination, let us also rededicate ourselves to the struggle for world peace, disarmament, peaceful co-existence and Caribbean integration.

Let us continue to push strenuously for the unreserved acceptance in our region of the principle of ideological pluralism and for an end to all forms of oppression, exploitation and military aggressions against the peoples of the Caribbean, Latin America and the entire world.

Sisters and brothers, friends, comrades, for the first time, this year, out Nationals and friends of Grenada living in the Caribbean, North America and Europe will have the opportunity of hearing and seeing this message at special get-to-gethers organised abroad by our Embassies and Friendship Societies.

We therefore take this opportunity to warmly great our nationals and friends abroad; to thank them for all of their moral and material support; to express again our unswerving solidarity with their struggles; for wish them a peaceful and productive 1983 and to remind them that Free Grenada, as always, waits to welcome them with open arms.

Finally, comrades, let me move into 1983 with a firm resolution to continue our uncompromising struggle against imperialism and the forces of reaction.

In particular, let us reaffirm our strongest solidarity with the peoples of South Africa, Namibia, El Salvador and Palestine who are today struggling for their freedom, sovereignty and human rights.

Let us especially remember our brave sisters and brothers of Nicaragua who are right not being subjected to such brutal, terrorist and cowardly attacks by imperialism and their agents in Central America.

Let us once more pledge our solidarity with all anti-imperialist, progressive, revolutionary and national liberation forces around the world struggling to bring about a more just and happy life for the vast majority of mankind.

Forward to a peaceful, productive and educational 1983!






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